A well was drilled at a depth of 250 m, a 9 m high water column broke out, and the water was fresh.

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A well was drilled at a depth of 250 m, a 9 m high water column broke out, and the water was fresh.

At the suggestion of Academician GI Marchuk observations were conducted in small regions. Where the most active and intense heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere.

They are called EAZon – energy active zones. There are 4 types of zones in the Atlantic: Norwegian, Newfoundland, Gulf Stream, narrative paper ideas Atlantic tropical. Observations are carried out 4 times a year at a landfill measuring 1500×2000 km. The program is performed by research vessels of the expeditionary fleet of our country. According to the results of the work, it is established that the greatest interaction in the ocean-atmosphere system occurs in the winter half of the year. All parameters of measurements by means of probes of repeated and single action arrive on the computer where, and they are processed.

The Atlantic Ocean is the saltiest of all oceans. The salt content of Atlantic waters averages 35.4%, which is higher than the salinity of the Pacific, Indian and Arctic Oceans. The distribution of salinity is not always zonal, it largely depends on a number of reasons: the amount and mode of precipitation, evaporation, inflows of water from other latitudes with currents and the amount of fresh water delivered by rivers. The highest salinity is observed in tropical latitudes (according to Gembel) – 37.9%, in the North Atlantic between 20 and 30 ° C. w., In the South between 20 and 25 ° south. w. Here trade wind circulation prevails, there is little precipitation, evaporation is a layer of 3 m.

There is almost no fresh water. Slightly more saline in the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, where the waters of the North Atlantic flow. Salinity in the equatorial latitudes is 35%. There is a change in salinity with depth: at a depth of 100-200 m it is 35%, which is due to the subsurface course of Lomonosov. It is established that the salinity of the surface layer does not coincide in some cases with the salinity at depth.

Salinity drops sharply at the meeting of different temperature currents. For example, south of Newfoundland, when the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current meet at a short distance, salinity drops from 35% to 31-32%.

An interesting feature of the Atlantic Ocean is the existence of fresh groundwater – submarine springs (according to IZ Zetsker). One of them has long been known to sailors, it is located east of the Florida peninsula, where ships replenish freshwater supplies; it is a 90-meter "fresh window" in the salty ocean.

The water rises to the surface and hits at a depth of 40 m. This is a typical phenomenon of unloading a rising source in the area of ​​tectonic faults or areas of karst development. (There is karst in Florida). When the pressure of groundwater exceeds the pressure of the seawater column, there is a discharge – the detection of groundwater to the surface.

A well was recently drilled on the mainland slope of the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Florida, 48 km from Johnsonville. A well was drilled at a depth of 250 m, a 9 m high water column broke out, and the water was fresh. The search for and research of submarine sources is just beginning.

The Atlantic Ocean is a part of the World Ocean, and the main features of its biological structure, naturally, obey the global laws of spatial distribution of life, common to other oceans.

Some specific features of the biology of the Atlantic Ocean are determined by the following features:

the largest among other oceans meridional length and the smallest width; relatively the most developed shelf (about 10% of the area); the presence of large additional basins of the Mediterranean type (Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean system); the powerful development of the Gulf Stream, which has a huge impact on the entire North Atlantic; intensity of meridional transfer of deep waters; clear subtropical upwellings near the east coast.


The outstanding geographer Miklouho-Maclay. Abstract

The young years of Miklouho-Maclay. Becoming a scientist. The memory of the scientist

Mykola Mykolayovych Miklouho-Maclay (born July 17, 1846, Christmas, Novgorod Province, died April 14, 1888, St. Petersburg) was an ethnographer and traveler who studied the indigenous population of the South. East Asia, Australia and Oceania (1870-1880), including the Papuans of the northeastern coast of New Guinea (This coast in Russian-language literature is called the Miklouho-Maclay Coast).

Miklouho-Maclay’s birthday is a professional holiday for ethnographers.

Young years

Mykola Mykolayovych Miklouho-Maclay was born into the family of a railway engineer. The family had a hereditary nobility, which was deserved by Miklouho-Maclay’s great-grandfather, a native of Chernihiv region, the Zaporozhian Cossack Stepan Miklukha, who distinguished himself during the capture of Ochakov (1788).

Later the family moved to St. Petersburg, where from 1858 Nicholas continued his studies at the Second St. Petersburg Gymnasium. After graduating from high school Miklouho-Maclay as a free student continues his studies at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of St. Petersburg University. The training was not long. In 1864, Miklouho-Maclay was expelled from the university for participating in student meetings, and he went to Germany with the funds raised by his fellow students.

In Germany, he continued his studies at the University of Heidelberg, where he studied philosophy. A year later, Miklouho-Maclay transferred to the medical faculty of the University of Leipzig and then the University of Jena. At the University of Jena, Nicholas met the famous zoologist E. Haeckel, under whose guidance he began to study the comparative anatomy of animals. As Haeckel’s assistant, Miklouho-Maclay travels to the Canary Islands and Morocco. After graduating from university in 1868, Miklouho-Maclay made an independent voyage along the Red Sea coast, and then, in 1869, returned to Russia.

Becoming a scientist

The horizons of the young researcher expanded and he moved on to more general issues of science – anthropology, ethnography, geography. Miklouho-Maclay has made remarkable progress in these areas. Of particular interest is his conclusion that the cultural and racial characteristics of different peoples are due to the natural and social environment.

Maklouho-Maclay makes another big trip. In 1870 he sailed to New Guinea on the warship Vityaz. Here, on the northeast coast of the island, he spends two years studying the life, customs, religious rites of the aborigines (Papuans). Miklouho-Maclay’s observations, which began in New Guinea, continue in the Philippines, Indonesia, the southwest coast of New Guinea, the Malacca Peninsula and the islands of Oceania.

In 1876-1877, the scientist again spent several months on the northeast coast of New Guinea, returning to the tribe whose life he had previously observed. Unfortunately, his stay on the island was short and signs of anemia and general exhaustion forced him to leave the island and go to Singapore. The treatment took more than six months. Lack of funds did not allow Miklouho-Maclay to return to Russia and he was forced to move to Sydney (Australia), where he settled with the Russian consul.

Then Miklouho-Maclay lived for a while in the English Club, and then moved into the house of a public figure, zoologist and chairman of the Linean Society of New South Wales W. Maclay. Maclay helps Miklouho-Maclay implement the idea of ​​building an Australian zoological station in Linnaeus. In September 1878, Miklouho-Maclay’s proposal was approved, and the construction of a station called the Marine Biological Station began in Watson Bay, designed by Sydney architect John Kirkpatrick.

In 1879-1880, Miklouho-Maclay made an expedition to the islands of Melanesia, in particular to the island of New Caledonia, and once again visited the northeastern coast of New Guinea.

In 1882 the scientist returned to Russia. Miklouho-Maclay’s plans included the construction of a naval station and a Russian settlement on the northeastern coast of New Guinea (Maclay’s Coast). Miklouho-Maclay also offered his program of economic and social transformations of the life of the islanders. Alexander III’s audience did not yield results. The scientist’s plans were rejected, but he managed to resolve the issue of debt repayment and obtain funding for further research and publication of his own works.

In 1883 Miklouho-Maclay left Russia and returned to Australia. In 1884 he married Margarita Robertson, the daughter of a large landowner and politician from New South Wales. In 1886, the scientist returned to Russia and again offered the emperor the "Maclay Coast Project" as a counter to the colonization of the island by Germany. However, this attempt did not bring the desired result. The worn-out organism of the researcher was weakly resistant to diseases, and on the evening of April 2, 1888, the great scientist died at the Villier Clinic in St. Petersburg.

The memory of the scientist

Miklouho-Maclay’s wife and his children, who returned to Australia after the scientist’s death, received a Russian pension until 1917 as a sign of the scientist’s great merit, which was paid from the personal funds of Alexander III and then Nicholas II.

In 1947 the name of Miklouho-Maclay was assigned to the Institute of Ethnography of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

In 1947, director VA Rozumny made the feature film "Miklouho-Maclay."

In 1996, the year of the 150th anniversary of the birth of Miklouho-Maclay, UNESCO named him a Citizen of the World.

In the same year on the territory of the University. V. Macley installed a bust of the scientist (sculptor G. Raspopov).


1. Geographical encyclopedia. In 4 volumes. – K., 1994-1996.

2. 100 great travelers. – M., 2001.


Study of minerals of the Ukrainian Carpathians: contribution of Ya. O. Kulchytsky. Abstract

Ya. O. Kulchytsky made a significant contribution to the study of the geology of minerals in the Ukrainian Carpathians. His works are valuable today, and they will be used for a long time in the practice of exploration for various minerals of the Carpathian region.

Ya. O. Kulchytsky belongs to a cohort of geologists of general profile and is one of the best experts in the geology of the Carpathian region. In his multifaceted scientific heritage, research related to the study of minerals of the Ukrainian Carpathians occupies an important place.

Almost all geological works of Yaroslav Onufriyovych of tectonic and paleontological-stratigraphic nature contained elements of practical orientation, i.e. were aimed at forecasting and exploration of various mineral deposits, primarily combustible, non-metallic ores and mineral waters.